vf-tropicom Meteorological Analysis for South Africa

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Seasonal Vegetation Index - 2000/2001

Seasonal vegetative index


Seasonal Rainfall - 2000/2001
in mm

Seasonal rainfall


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Preliminary Monthly Weather Analysis
Southern Africa - 2000/2001

From the African Desk, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA
Note: This information should be used with caution.
Weather data based on preliminary reports.

  • July 2001 - Seasonably dry weather prevailed in Angola, Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, central and northern South Africa and western Madagascar. Light to moderate rains (1-69 mm, 17-219% of normal) fell in western South Africa, along the Mozambique coast, the western coast of Madagascar and the Comoros Islands. Heavy to very heavy rains (186-513 mm, 110-323% of normal) fell along the eastern coast of Madagascar. Temperatures averaged near normal except for 2 to 4 degrees C above normal along the coastal areas of Namibia and the northwestern coast of South Africa.
  • July 21-31 2001 - Seasonably dry weather prevailed in most places. However, light to moderate rains (1-89 mm, 18-458% of normal) fell in the coastal areas of South Africa, Mozambique, eastern and northern coasts of Madagascar and the Comoros Islands. The extreme northeastern coast of Madagascar reported heavy rains (111-120 mm, 126-189% of normal). Temperatures averaged 2 to 5 degrees C higher than normal over central Namibia and 2 to 3 degrees C lower than normal in northwestern Namibia, southern Zimbabwe, coastal areas of South Africa and northeastern Mozambique. Temperatures were near normal elsewhere.
  • July 11-20 2001 - Unseasonable rains (20-75 mm; 200-700% of normal) again fell over southwestern South Africa.
  • July 1-10 2001 - Unseasonably heavy rains (10-163 mm; 400-1000% of normal) fell over southwestern South Africa.
  • June 2001 - Seasonably dry weather prevailed over most of the region. However, moderate to heavy rains (77-285 mm; 70-100% of normal) fell over the eastern coast of Madagascar while light showers (1-40 mm) prevailed over most of South Africa, southern Botswana and southeast Mozambique.
  • June 21-30 2001 - Unseasonable rains (1-25 mm; 200-1000% of normal) fell over most of South Africa and parts of southern Mozambique and southern Botswana.
  • June 11-20 2001 - Seasonably dry conditions remained over most of the region with light to moderate rain (1-63 mm; 20-550% of normal) over the east coast of Madagascar, south coast of South Africa, coastal Mozambique and eastern Zimbabwe. Temperatures were normal, except 2 to 4 degrees C above normal over most of South Africa, western and southern Namibia and northern Botswana.
  • June 1-10 2001 - Seasonably dry conditions remained over most of the region. However, moderate to heavy showers (20-130; 58-152% of normal) fell over the east coast of Madagascar and light to moderate rains (1-24 mm; 20-306% of normal) fell over central South Africa and coastal Mozambique. Temperatures averaged 2 to 6 degrees C above normal over most of South Africa, southern and eastern Namibia, Botswana and central and eastern Zimbabwe. Readings averaged 2 degrees C below normal over southeastern Malawi and interior Madagascar.
  • May 2001 - Seasonably dry weather prevailed at most locations, although South Africa saw above-normal rains in the maize triangle and below normal rains along the south coast. In general, light to moderate rains (1-50 mm) fell over most of South Africa, Botswana, central Namibia, northern and southern Zimbabwe, northern Mozambique, northern Malawi and northern and southern Madagascar. Locally heavy to very heavy showers (101-441 mm) fell over coastal Mozambique and the east coast of Madagascar. Temperatures were near normal, except 2 to 4 degrees C above normal over western Namibia and the south coast of South Africa.
  • May 21-31 2001 - Seasonably dry conditions remained over most of the region. Locally light to moderate rains fell in southern South Africa, northeast Zimbabwe, eastern Malawi and northern Mozambique. Light to moderate showers (11-109; 70-131% of normal) fell over the east coast of Madagascar. Temperatures averaged near normal except 2 to 5 degrees C above normal over central South Africa, most of Namibia and Botswana and central and northeast Mozambique.
  • May 11-20 2001 - Most of the sub-region was seasonably dry, except for light rains (2-10 mm, 18-100% of normal) over the southwest coast of South Africa and southern Malawi. The central coast of Mozambique (31-95 mm; 145-367% of normal) and eastern coast of Madagascar (74-321 mm; 120-338% of normal) recorded scattered heavy to very heavy showers. Temperature readings averaged within 1 to 2 degrees C of normal except for 2 to 5 degrees C above normal in central and western South Africa and coastal Namibia and 2 to 4 degrees C below normal in southern Zambia and western Malawi.
  • May 1-10 2001 - Unseasonable rain (10-60 mm; 100-623% of normal) continued to affect most of South Africa, southern Botswana and central Namibia. Locally heavy rain (75-150 mm) hit southeastern Botswana, east-central Namibia and southwestern South Africa. Seasonably dry conditions prevailed elsewhere in the region. Temperature readings averaged 1 to 2 C below normal over much of the region except 2 to 4 degrees C above normal over the eastern coast of Madagascar, western and northern Namibia, northeast Zimbabwe and northern Mozambique.
  • April 2001 - Unseasonably wet weather covered southwestern Africa from south Angola to South Africa, with especially heavy and near-record rain (75-150 mm; 200-900% of normal) from Namibia southward to central South Africa. Southeastern Africa was abnormally dry, as the rainy season ended early. Totals ranged from 25 to 50% of normal from Zambia through northern Zimbabwe, northern Mozambique, Malawi and northern and central Madagascar. The dryness followed the heavy rains that had earlier caused flooding in this region. Amounts were also below normal in eastern Botswana and parts of southern Mozambique. Despite some late-season rains, the growing season was unfavorably dry over the agricultural areas of Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, extreme southern Zimbabwe and southern Mozambique. Monthly temperatures were near normal.
  • April 21-30 2001 - Unseasonable rain (20-78 mm; 200-1000% of normal) continued to affect most of South Africa, southern and northern Botswana, central Namibia and southern Angola. In South Africa, the heavy rains spared northeastern and west coastal areas. Dry weather covered most of Mozambique, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia and western Namibia. Temperatures were near normal, except about 2 degrees C below normal over the west coasts of South Africa and Namibia and central and eastern Zambia. Readings averaged 2 to 3 degrees C above normal in eastern South Africa and in parts of Zimbabwe, Malawi, Madagascar and Mozambique.
  • April 11-20 2001 - Unseasonable showers (22-139 mm; 94-999% of normal) fell in central South Africa, southwestern Botswana, central and southern Namibia and pockets along the eastern coast of Madagascar. Amounts continued to diminish in the flood-affected areas of southeastern Africa, as little or no rain fell in central Mozambique, Malawi, southern and western Zambia and much of Zimbabwe. Rainfall was also light in central and eastern Botswana, western South Africa and northern Namibia. The drier pattern coincides well with the slow movement of the ITCZ to the north of southern Africa. Locally light to moderate showers (1-19 mm; 8-88% of normal) fell over the remainder of the region. Satellite rainfall estimates indicated amounts in excess of 100 mm continued over northwestern Angola, while central Madagascar saw rains in the range of 25 to 75 mm. Temperatures were generally normal over southern Africa, except 1 to 4 degrees C below normal in Zambia and 1 to 3 degrees C above normal in Namibia and southwestern South Africa.
  • April 1-10 2001 - Satellite estimates and surface reports indicated that abnormally wet conditions developed across southwestern Africa, as locally heavy showers deposited 75 to 150 mm on Angola and eastern Namibia. The Namibian totals across the interior ranged from 300 to 1000% of normal. These rains caused minor flooding in western Angola and central Namibia. Unusual rains (25-100 mm; 300-1000% of normal) also spread across central and western South Africa. Totals in the wettest areas of Namibia and South Africa ranged from 300 to 1000% of normal. Rainfall continued to taper off across flood-affected areas of southeastern Africa, as amounts in Zambia, Malawi, and Zimbabwe generally totaled 25 mm or less. Nevertheless, isolated totals exceeded 80 mm in eastern Zimbabwe and central and southern Mozambique. Locally light to moderate rains (1-62 mm; 9-71% of normal) fell over the remainder of the region. Madagascar was unseasonably dry (0-60 mm; 0-30% of normal) this period following heavy rains in late March. Temperatures were mostly normal over southern Africa, except 1 to 3 degrees C below normal in Zambia and northern Mozambique and 3 degrees C above normal in western Namibia.
  • March 2001 - Generally above-normal rainfall fell across southern Africa during the month. The second consecutive month of heavy rains contributed to flooding from Zambia and northern Zimbabwe eastward across central and northern Mozambique and Malawi, although amounts were not as extreme as during February. Cyclone Dera tracked southward in the Mozambique Channel during March 9-12, avoiding a direct hit on any land mass. The storm did contribute heavy rains to northeastern Mozambique, parts of Madagascar’s west coast and the central Comoros Islands, but the cyclone’s rains largely missed the flooded areas in the Mozambique provinces of Sofala, Manica, Tete and interior Zambezia. A persistent ITCZ during March focused heavy rains (150-300 mm) on central and eastern Zambia, northern Zimbabwe, much of Malawi and central and northern Mozambique, with major flooding reported in central Mozambique. Above-normal rains also covered central South Africa (60-90 mm) and the southwestern coast of Madagascar (95-115 mm). Dry conditions persisted in western Namibia and along the southwestern coast of South Africa, but these areas typically record little rainfall during March.
  • March 21-31 2001 - Heavy rains (34-85 mm; 94-373% of normal) fell in northern and eastern Zambia, northern Zimbabwe, northern Mozambique, eastern Namibia, and much of South Africa, including the central and southern maize triangle. Abundant rains also fell in a band stretching from Madagascar’s west-central coast to the southeast coast. Rains continued to diminish in eastern Zimbabwe, southern Malawi, and central Mozambique, including the flood-affected Zambezi River basin. Amounts in this region stayed mainly under 25 mm, although satellite estimates indicated that locally isolated rainfall totals exceeded 50 mm along the central Mozambique coast in northern Sofala and southern Zambezia. Rainfall exceeding 75 mm hit northeastern Zambia and parts of Madagascar and caused minor flooding in eastern Zambia. Locally light to moderate rains (2-17 mm; 11-86% of normal) fell over the remainder of the region. Rainfall was abnormally light over extreme southwestern South Africa. Temperatures were mostly normal over southern Africa, except 1 to 3 degrees C below normal in Zambia and 1 to 2 degrees C above normal in Namibia and southwestern South Africa.
  • March 11-20 2001 - Heavy rains (65-164 mm; 107-484% of normal) fell in central Zambia, northern and eastern Zimbabwe, north-central and south-coastal Mozambique and southern Malawi. The heaviest estimated amounts exceeded 125 mm along the southern coast of Mozambique's Inhambane province. Amounts diminished in the Comoros Islands, northeastern Mozambique and the western coast of Madagascar as Cyclone Dera exited the Mozambique channel, weakening as it moved southward. Locally heavy showers (24-31 mm; 90-344% of normal) fell in southern Botswana, eastern Namibia, southern South Africa and the western coast of Madagascar. Light to moderate rains (3-28 mm; 12-84% of normal ) fell over the remainder of the region, including South Africa's maize triangle. Generally, rainfall has remained above normal from Mozambique to Zambia this season and below normal in South Africa's maize triangle, Lesotho and Swaziland. Temperatures were generally normal over southern Africa, except 1 to 3 degrees C below normal in Zambia.
  • March 1-10 2001 - Tropical cyclone Dera brought very heavy rains (65-165 mm; 102-429% of normal) to the west coast of Madagascar, the Comoros Islands, and central Mozambique, where floods resumed in the provinces of Sofala, Manica, Tete, and interior Zambezia. Isolated heavy rains exceeding 100 mm caused minor flooding in eastern Zambia in the Luangwa valley. Moderate rains (26-37 mm; 66-88% of normal) also fell over northern Mozambique prolonging the floods in the provinces of Cabo Delgado and Nampula. Extremely heavy rains (68-157 mm; 142-598% of normal) struck much of central and northeastern Zimbabwe, while moderate to heavy rains (30-35 mm; 105-122% of normal) were observed over northeastern Botswana. In contrast to these abundant rains, abnormally dry conditions persisted over much of Namibia, and central and western Botswana. In South Africa, dry conditions prevailed to the west, while isolated light to moderate rains (5-39 mm; 9-98% of normal) fell to the east. Satellite rainfall estimates indicated light to moderate rains (1-10 mm) over northern Angola, and 25-50 mm over western Angola. Temperatures were generally near average across southern Africa, except much of Namibia and South Africa, where they were 2 to 4 degrees C above normal.
  • February 21-28 2001 - Locally heavy rains (49-204 mm; 103-486% of normal) fell in northeastern Namibia, southeast Angola, southern Zambia, southern Malawi, and northeastern South Africa. Amounts diminished in the flood-affected areas of Mozambique, where estimated totals mostly ranged from 10 to 75 mm. The heaviest rains fell over interior Zambezia province, with estimated amounts of 75 to 150 mm. Satellite estimates also indicated locally heavy amounts near 75 mm in Mozambique's Tete province. Excessive rainfall ranging from 100 to 200 mm hit western Zimbabwe and southwestern Zambia. Amounts exceeded 75 mm in formerly dry areas in southern Zimbabwe. Reported rainfall reached 131 mm in south-central Madagascar. In Botswana, showers dropped as much as 100 mm in central and northern areas. Light to moderate rains (10-75 mm; 25-86% of normal) fell over the remainder of the region. Temperatures were generally normal over southern Africa, except 1 to 3 degrees above normal in Namibia, and western South Africa.
  • February 2001 - Very heavy rainfall (300-500 mm; 200-300% of normal) inundated the central provinces of Mozambique and southern Malawi in February, causing serious flooding in Mozambique, while 300 to 400 mm covered north-central Zimbabwe, southern Zambia and parts of southeastern Angola. Moderate to heavy rain benefited areas to the south following abnormal dryness in January, with 50 to 150 mm (75-115% of normal) in South Africa, Swaziland, Botswana, Lesotho and northern Namibia. Amounts ranging from 100 to 300 mm relieved dryness over much of southern Mozambique, although seasonal totals remained below normal in some areas. Cumulative rainfall since December 1 ranged from 75 to as much as 200 mm below normal across much of South Africa's maize triangle and 50 to 100 mm below normal over small areas in eastern and western Botswana.
  • February 11-20 2001 - Very heavy rains (150-255 mm; 200-471% of normal) fell over already-saturated areas of Mozambique, including the central provinces of Zambezia, Tete, Manica, and Sofala, and the southern province of Inhambane. Since February 1, rainfall totals have ranged from 300 to 500 mm over much of Mozambique's central region, with Vilanculos, on the northeast coast of Inhambane, reporting 511 mm. From February 11-20, satellite estimates indicated that the heaviest rains (over 200 mm) fell over interior Zambezia province and northeast Inhambane. Locally heavy rains exceeded 150 mm in southern Mozambique, erasing most of the lingering dryness in Gaza and Maputo. Heavy rains also left 150 to 200 mm over much of northern Zimbabwe, including the major maize belt. Cumulative totals since February 1 in the region range from 250 to 365 mm. Locally heavy rainfall exceeding 125 mm fell over central and western Zambia and extreme northeastern South Africa. Totals of 25 to 75 mm further eased dryness in Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland and southern Zimbabwe. During most of the period, an active ITCZ oscillated about the boundaries of Zambia, Zimbabwe and central Mozambique, focusing heavy showers in this region. Satellite data indicated heavy rain on February 12,18 and 20 across much of central Mozambique. In Angola, locally heavy rains struck the northwest, according to satellite data. In contrast, despite some recent improvement, abnormally dry conditions have persisted since the start of the year in much of Botswana and parts of northeastern Namibia and South Africa's maize triangle, with four-week rainfall totals generally under 50% of normal in the drier areas. Temperatures were generally 1 to 2 degrees C below normal over southern Africa, except 1 degree above normal in Namibia, Botswana and central South Africa.
  • February 1-10 2001 - Very heavy rains (83-256 mm; 90-503% of normal) fell in central Mozambique, southern Malawi, southern Zambia, Zimbabwe, and south-central Madagascar, with the heaviest estimated amounts (over 250 mm) inundating the Mozambique provinces of Inhambane, Sofala, and Tete. The rains were due to an active ITCZ oscillating about the borders of Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The heaviest rains fell on February 4-5 (view .gif), with satellite-estimated 24-hour amounts exceeding 100 mm from central Inhambane province in the south to central Zambezia in north-central Mozambique. In contrast, rainfall deficits persisted in Namibia and across much of the southern sub-continent. Light to moderate rains (10-36 mm; 90-102% of normal) fell over northeastern Botswana and along the southwestern coast of South Africa, but dryness persisted over Namibia, southern and central Botswana, central and southern Gaza province in southern Mozambique and Swaziland. Little rain has fallen since early January in extreme southern Mozambique. In South Africa, south, central and northeast 10-day totals ranged from 10 to 50 mm (10 to 60% of normal), with isolated amounts to 97 mm. Several parts of South Africa’s maize triangle have accumulated less than 25% of normal rainfall in the past 4 weeks. In Madagascar, amounts were seasonably heavy except for above normal (100-300 mm) in the extreme north and south-central areas. Temperatures were generally 1 to 2 degrees C below normal over southern Africa except 1 to 3 degrees above normal in northeastern Namibia and Botswana.
  • January 2001 - Heavy and persistent rains extended from Madagascar through northern Mozambique into Malawi and Tanzania, with heavy rains extending southward into central Mozambique toward the end of the month. Satellite-estimated totals exceeded 300 mm locally along the central and northern Mozambique coast, and isolated totals exceeded 400 mm. Observed amounts ranged from 300 to 600 mm (130-160% of normal) over south-central to north-central Madagascar. In contrast, southern and extreme northern Madagascar recorded monthly totals of 50 to 200 mm (30-60% of normal). Amounts of 200 to 300 mm (100-200% of normal) covered central and southern Tanzania as well as parts of Malawi and much of northern Zambia. Locally, up to 375 mm fell on north-central Zambia (Copperbelt Province). Abnormal dryness covered a large area to the south, as monthly totals of 10 to 50 mm (10-40% of normal) extended from southern Mozambique westward to Swaziland, interior South Africa, central and southern Zimbabwe, most of Botswana, and northeastern Namibia. Satellite estimated rainfall totaled under 10 mm in parts of Gaza and Inhambane provinces in southern Mozambique. This was the second consecutive month of below-normal rainfall for this part of Mozambique. After January 2, rainfall virtually stopped from southern Mozambique to Botswana, resulting in severe dryness coinciding with the start of summer crops' critical growth period. Scattered showers brought sporadic relief to Botswana and South Africa toward month's end, but more moisture was needed. Over South Africa's maize triangle, monthly rainfall mostly ranged from 18 to 50 mm, or only around 20 to 50% of normal. Increased shower activity during the second half of the month eased dryness in Namibia and southern Angola, although monthly totals remained under 50% of normal in northeast Namibia. Monthly temperatures 2 to 4 degrees C above normal aggravated the dryness in northeast Namibia and across northern Botswana.
  • January 21-31 2001 - Very heavy rains (87-286 mm; 96-279% of normal) fell in central Madagascar, central Mozambique and northern Zambia. The rains were due to an active ITCZ stretching from northern Zambia through central Mozambique into central Madagascar. In Mozambique, the torrential rains flooded central Zambezia province and the northwestern province of Tete as well as Beira in Sofala province and the lower Zambezi River. In contrast, rainfall deficits prevailed to the south across much of the subcontinent. Scattered showers (5-30 mm; 41-226% of normal) provided some relief to central and southern Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa's maize triangle, but severe dryness persisted over southern Mozambique (Inhambane and Gaza provinces) and southern Zimbabwe, where little rain has fallen since early January. In South Africa, totals ranged between 50 and 125 mm along the west, south and eastern coasts. Locally heavy rains fell in Angola, including the previously dry southern region. Temperatures were generally 1 to 2 degrees C below normal over southern Africa but readings averaging 2 to 3 degrees above normal aggravated dryness in northeastern Namibia, Botswana, southern Zimbabwe, and northern South Africa.
  • January 11-20 2001 - Rainfall remained generally below normal over most areas. Scattered showers (10-25 mm; 20-80% of normal) brought some relief to dryness in southern Angola and northern and central Namibia, but cumulative rainfall for the season remained well below normal. Dry conditions continued to prevail over southern Namibia and southern Botswana. Light to moderate rains (2-29 mm; 5-81% of normal) fell in southern Mozambique, much of Zimbabwe and northeastern South Africa. Torrential rains struck large areas of Madagascar, as a tropical low pressure area remained nearly stationary over the Mozambique Channel. Totals of 150 to 400 mm were common over all but the far northern and southern areas of the island, with up to 476 mm inundating the Besalampy area on the northwest coast. Heavy rains (75-297 mm; 106-368% of normal) also fell over northern and eastern Zambia and into southern DRC, southern Malawi and northern Mozambique. Unseasonably heavy rains (5-75 mm; 100-500% of normal) fell over southern and western coastal areas of South Africa. Temperatures were generally 1 to 2 degrees C below normal over southern Africa except 2 to 3 degrees above normal in northern Namibia and northeast South Africa.
  • January 1-10 2001 - Rainfall was mostly below normal. Hot, dry conditions continued to prevail over much of Namibia and southern Angola, where rainfall totals were below normal for the third consecutive 10-day period. Rainfall amounts (0-1 mm) were 25 to 50 mm below normal in northern Namibia and adjacent Angola. Dry weather also extended over southern Botswana and central and western South Africa, but these areas saw mostly adequate rainfall last month. Rainfall was below normal (0-30 mm; 0-50% of normal) over central and southern Zimbabwe and southern Mozambique. Moderate to heavy rains (45-183 mm; 90-338% of normal) fell in central Zambia, southern DRC, northern Zimbabwe and along the eastern coast of South Africa as well as central and extreme northern Madagascar. Light to moderate rains (0-42 mm; 0-65% of normal) fell over southwestern Zambia, southern Malawi, central Zimbabwe, northeastern Botswana, interior South Africa and most of Madagascar. Satellite rainfall estimates indicated heavy rains (100-200 mm) over eastern Angola, northern Zambia, northern and central Malawi and northern Mozambique. Cyclone Ando tracked southward just west of La Réunion on January 7-8, bringing heavy rains to the island. Temperatures were generally 1 to 2 degrees C below normal over Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique and 1 to 2 degrees above average in northern Namibia, Botswana, northern Zimbabwe and along the east coast of Madagascar.
  • December 2000 - The good rains (82-285 mm; 91-168% of normal) were confined to northern Zimbabwe. Abundant rains (141-366 mm; 103-145% of normal) were also observed along the southeastern and northwestern coasts of Madagascar. Elsewhere, isolated moderate rains (53-325 mm; 91-160% of normal) fell over parts of northwestern Zambia, the Free State, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Northern Transvaal Provinces of South Africa. Drier than normal conditions prevailed over much of South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, southern Zimbabwe, and Mozambique. Satellite rainfall estimates indicated moderate to heavy rains (100-300 mm) over much of Angola and Zambia. However dry conditions were observed along the coast of Angola southward into Namibia. Temperatures were generally near average across much of the region.
  • December 21-31 2000 - Moderate to heavy rains (50-261 mm; 89-218% of normal) were observed along the northeastern and central-west coasts of Madagascar, along the northeastern coast of Mozambique, and over northwestern and southern Zimbabwe. In South Africa, isolated moderate rains (10-71 mm; 101-153% of normal) were confined to the Gauteng, parts of the North-West, Mpumalanga, and Northern Transvaal Provinces. Light rains (5-47 mm; 35-66% of normal) fell over much of the Free State and Northern Cape Provinces. Light rains were also observed over much of Botswana and northern Namibia, while dry conditions prevailed over southern Namibia. Satellite rainfall estimates indicated heavy rains (100-200 mm) over western Zambia and eastern Angola, and dry conditions over central Angola and along the coast. Temperatures were generally 1 to 2 degrees C below normal over much of Madagascar, northern Mozambique into southern Tanzania and northeastern Zambia, and along the western coast of South Africa. They were near average elsewhere.
  • December 11-20 2000 - Moderate to heavy rains (20-206 mm; 105-312% of normal were observed over the southern Free State Province of South Africa, northern Zimbabwe, central Zambia, northern Mozambique, and along the eastern coast of Madagascar. Lighter rains were observed in the western part of Madagascar, northern South Africa, southern Zimbabwe, Botswana and northern Namibia. Dry conditions prevailed across much of the western half of South Africa and southern Namibia. Satellite rainfall estimates indicated 1-96mm (1-195% of normal) fell over Madagascar, northeastern South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, northern Mozambique, northern Botswana and northeastern Namibia, isolated heavy rains (111-206mm, 108-208%) fell in northeastern South Africa and Madagascar. Satellite estimations indicated dry conditions in southern Angola, while northern Angola registered rainfall totals ranging between 50 and 200 mm in northern Angola. Temperatures were near average across much of the region.
  • December 1-10 2000 - Heavy rains over northern Mozambique diminished, with the greatest amounts (50-100 mm) over Zambezia and Tete provinces. To the south, rainfall was light for the second consecutive period over the southern third of the country. Moderate rains (30-95 mm, 50-200% of normal) fell over central and northern Madagascar, central and eastern South Africa and most of Zimbabwe. Rainfall was abundant but not excessive over Botswana, with 25 to 100 mm falling over agricultural areas. Isolated heavy rains (110-146 mm, 145-340%) fell in Zimbabwe and Madagascar, but amounts were less than one-half normal (1-20 mm) in southern Zambia, southeastern and northern Zimbabwe, and southern Madagascar. Satellite rainfall estimates yielded 25 to 200 mm over southern Angola, relieving short-term dryness. Estimated rainfall remained below normal in northwest Angola. Temperatures averaged 2 to 3 degrees C below normal in Zambia and northern Mozambique but 2 to 3 degrees C above normal in western South Africa and Namibia.
  • November 2000 - Abundant to excessive rains fell over many areas, especially eastern and northern parts of the region, while below-normal rains fell in northern Namibia and southern and western Angola. Moderate rains (75-150 mm, 100-150% of normal) fell in southwestern Zambia, extreme northern Mozambique, central Zimbabwe, Botswana and eastern South Africa. Heavy rain (150-300 mm, 102-374% of normal) fell over northern and eastern Zambia, northeastern Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kwazulu-Natal in South Africa, northern Mozambique and Madagascar. Satellite-estimated amounts exceeded 300 mm in Mozambique’s Zambezia province, far northern Zambia, portions of the Kwazulu-Natal coast and west-central Madagascar. Satellite rainfall estimates ranged from 100 to 300 mm over northern interior Angola, but amounts were unseasonably light (0-25 mm) over south-central and southwestern Angola. Satellite estimates also imply that monthly rainfall was below normal along the west-central and northwest coastalareas of Angola. Temperatures were 2 to 4 degrees C below normal in northeastern Mozambique, Malawi and northeastern Zambia.
  • November 21-30 2000 - Abnormally wet weather (50-150 mm, 100-630% of normal) covered a large area extending from Zambia, Malawi, and northeastern Zimbabwe southeastward through northern Mozambique to Madagascar. Heavy rains have persisted for much of November over northern Malawi and northern Mozambique. Zambezia and southern Nampula provinces in Mozambique have borne the brunt of the heavy rains, according to satellite data. Drier weather prevailed immediately to the south in interior southern Mozambique and in southern Zimbabwe, but another band of heavy rains (30-130 mm, 200-600% of normal) extended from southern Botswana eastward across northern South Africa. Moderate to heavy rains fell over central Zimbabwe and northern Botswana. Satellite estimates of precipitation indicated 25 mm to 150 mm over northeastern Angola, but little or none in southwestern and south-central Angola, as well as northern Namibia. Estimated rainfall has been persistently below normal during November in this area as well as in northwest Angola. Temperatures averaged 2 to 3 degrees C below normal in eastern Zambia, Malawi, southwestern Zimbabwe, northern South Africa and northern Madagascar.
  • November 11-20 2000 - Moderate to heavy rains (40-97 mm, 150-849% of normal) fell over central and eastern South Africa, northern and central Zimbabwe, southern Zambia, southern Mozambique and much of Madagascar. Very heavy rains exceeding 200 mm struck Kwazulu-Natal in South Africa, causing floods. Satellite data indicated that heavy rain (150-200 mm) also hit Zambezia Province in northern Mozambique. Heavy isolated rains (111-233 mm, 133-350% of normal) fell over interior Madagascar and its northeastern coast. Four-week rainfall totaled more than 200% of normal across most of Zimbabwe and over scattered locations in southern and eastern South Africa. Satellite estimates of precipitation indicated seasonal amounts of 25 mm to 150 mm over northern Angola. Temperatures averaged 2 to 4 degrees C below normal in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Madagascar.
  • November 1-10 2000 - Moderate to heavy rains (25-85 mm, 200-500% of normal) fell over Zimbabwe, northern Botswana, and southern Malawi, with heavy rains (50-150 mm) over eastern and northern Zambia, and north-central and interior southern Mozambique. Lighter amounts (1-25 mm) fell in northeastern Namibia and Botswana. Satellite estimates of precipitation indicated 50 to 100 mm over northern Angola. South Africa's summer crop areas measured 15 to 45 mm (115-170% of normal). Temperatures averaged 2 to 3 degrees C below normal in Zimbabwe, northern Mozambique and Zambia, but 2 to 3 degrees C above normal in southern South Africa.
  • October 2000 - The rainy season was off to a wet start, with amounts more than twice normal in northeastern Namibia, northern and southern Botswana, central and eastern Zimbabwe, and the northeastern maize triangle of South Africa. Light to moderate rains (1-96 mm, 1- 574% of normal) fell in Madagascar, Mozambique, Zambia and central South Africa, while heavy rain (105-176 mm, 146-176%of normal ) fell over interior Madagascar. Temperatures were normal.
  • October 21-31 2000 - Light to moderate rains (1-98 mm, 3- 873% of normal) fell over Madagascar, central and southern Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and northeastern Namibia. Unseasonably heavy rains (25-100 mm) hit South Africa's maize triangle. Temperatures averaged 2 to 3 degrees C below normal in central Zimbabwe, eastern South Africa, coastal Mozambique and the southern and northern tips of Madagascar.
  • October 11-20 2000 - The period experienced encouraging rainfall signals in the eastern half of South Africa, where moderate rains (10-30 mm; 80-377% of normal) were observed. Light to moderate rains were also observed along the east coast of Madagascar. Seasonably dry conditions prevailed elsewhere. Temperatures were 2 to 5 degrees C above normal in Namibia and South Africa and near normal in the rest of the region.
  • October 1-10 2000 - The dry season continued in most areas with light to moderate rains (1-75 mm, 1-203% of normal) in northern and eastern coastal Madagascar and southeastern South Africa. Amounts in Swaziland and South Africa’s maize triangle ranged up to 200% of normal. Temperatures averaged 2 to 3 degrees C above normal in eastern Zimbabwe, central and western Mozambique, northern Namibia, northern Botswana and eastern South Africa. Temperatures were near normal elsewhere.
  • September 2000 - Most places remained seasonably dry except for South Africa, where the abnormally heavy rains that fell mid-month resulted in monthly amounts ranging from 140 to over 500% of normal. Coastal Mozambique and coastal Madagascar reported light to moderate rains (1-98 mm, 2-587% of normal) while isolated heavy rains (103-196 mm, 98-144% of normal) fell on the southeastern coast of Mozambique and the northeastern coast of Madagascar. Temperatures were about normal for the month.
  • September 21-30 2000 - Only South Africa, Mozambique and Madagascar reported rainfall while other areas remained dry. Light to moderate rains (1-43 mm, 1-159% of normal) fell in coastal and northeastern South Africa, and coastal Madagascar. Isolated heavy rains (107-195 mm, 159-1000% of normal) fell on the southeastern coast of Mozambique and the eastern coast of Madagascar. Temperatures averaged near normal except in Namibia and South Africa, where temperatures ranged from 2 to 3 degrees C above normal.
  • September 11-20 2000 - The intrusion of southern hemisphere mid-latitude systems favored the return of the rains in the southern part of the region as South Africa, Zimbabwe, the south coast of Mozambique and the east coast of Madagascar had light to moderate rains (1-89mm, 16-515% of normal). The rest of the region remained seasonably dry. Temperatures in South Africa went down 2 to 4 degrees C below normal. Elsewhere, temperatures were about normal.
  • September 1-10 2000 - The dry season prevailed with light rains (1-63 mm, 5-309% of normal) in southern South Africa, central Zimbabwe, coastal Mozambique and the northern and eastern coast of Madagascar. Satellite rainfall estimates ranged from 50 to 150 mm over northeastern Angola. Temperatures averaged 2 to 3 degrees C higher than normal over northern South Africa, Zimbabwe, northern Namibia and central and northern Mozambique.
  • August 2000 - Light to moderate rains (1-50 mm, 6-468% of normal) fell in South Africa, the northwestern coast of Madagascar and the Comoros Islands. The only report of heavy rains (110-263 mm, 78-165% of normal) came from the eastern coast of Madagascar. Generally normal temperatures prevailed but readings averaged slightly higher than normal by 2 to 3 degrees C in South Africa and Namibia.
  • August 21-31 2000 - The southern Africa sub-region experienced seasonably dry conditions. The few places with rainfall included central and southern parts of South Africa and Madagascar (1-62 mm, 17-275% of normal). Temperatures averaged 2 to 3 degrees C higher than normal over southern South Africa and Namibia.
  • August 11-20 2000 - Seasonable dryness prevailed across much of the region. The exception was the Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts of South Africa, and a few localized areas along the Mozambique coast that recorded light rains. Significant rains (36-117 mm; 96-165% of normal) fell along the east coast of Madagascar. Lighter but unseasonable rains dotted the northwestern coast. Temperatures were generally 2 to 3 degrees C above average across the western half of South Africa and Namibia. They were 1 to 2 degrees C below average across the eastern half of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique, and Madagascar.
  • August 1-10 2000 - The southern Africa region experienced seasonably drier weather in general as most places, including the eastern coast of Madagascar, reported less rainfall. Light to moderate rains (1-85 mm, 25-129% of normal) dampened South Africa’s western area and southern coast, Mozambique’s coast, the eastern coast of Madagascar and the Comoros Islands. Temperatures averaged 2 degrees C higher than normal over southern South Africa and western Madagascar and 2 to 3 degrees C lower than normal in southern Zimbabwe and northern Mozambique. Temperatures were near normal elsewhere.
  • July 2000 - Seasonably dry weather prevailed in Angola, Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, central and northern South Africa and western Madagascar. Light to moderate rains (1-69 mm, 17-219% of normal) fell in western South Africa, along the Mozambique coast, the western coast of Madagascar and the Comoros Islands. Heavy to very heavy rains (186-513 mm, 110-323% of normal) fell along the eastern coast of Madagascar. Temperatures averaged near normal except for 2 to 4 degrees C above normal along the coastal areas of Namibia and the northwestern coast of South Africa.
  • July 21-31 2000 - Seasonably dry weather prevailed in most places. However, light to moderate rains (1-89 mm, 18-458% of normal) fell in the coastal areas of South Africa, Mozambique, eastern and northern coasts of Madagascar and the Comoros Islands. The extreme northeastern coast of Madagascar reported heavy rains (111-120 mm, 126-189% of normal). Temperatures averaged 2 to 5 degrees C higher than normal over central Namibia and 2 to 3 degrees C lower than normal in northwestern Namibia, southern Zimbabwe, coastal areas of South Africa and northeastern Mozambique. Temperatures were near normal elsewhere.
  • July 11-20 2000 - Unseasonably heavy rains (30-69 mm; 189-582% of normal) fell in southwestern South Africa. Isolated heavy rains (116 mm; 228% of normal) fell on the southeastern coast of Madagascar. Other areas remained under the influence of the dry season. Temperatures averaged lower than normal over southwestern South Africa, 2 to 3 degrees C above normal in Zimbabwe, and near normal elsewhere.
  • July 1-10 2000 - Moderate to heavy rains (30-342 mm; 200-755% of normal) fell over the eastern coast of Madagascar. Light to moderate rains (1-10 mm, isolated 45 mm; 50 to over 900% of normal) fell in southern Zimbabwe, the southern and central coasts of Mozambique, interior central Mozambique and the west coast of Madagascar. Other areas remained under the influence of the dry season. Temperatures were higher than normal along the coast of Namibia and south coast of South Africa and below normal in Malawi and southern Zambia.

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